Models for coaching


The PERMA-V model is a framework developed by positive psychologist Martin Seligman to identify the five essential elements of well-being.

Useful in coaching for Building a Plan, Exploring Options, Healing, Making a Change, Self-Awareness, Setting Goals, Understanding Behaviour 

PERMA-V Model Overview and Template

What is the PERMA-V model?

The PERMA-V model is an innovative and comprehensive framework that focuses on the key elements of psychological well-being and happiness. It was developed by renowned psychologist Martin Seligman, who is widely regarded as the founder of positive psychology. The PERMA-V model serves as a roadmap for individuals looking to cultivate a flourishing life, by providing practical strategies and insights to enhance overall well-being.

PERMA-V Model Overview and Template

Background to the PERMA model

The PERMA model was initially introduced by Seligman in his book, “Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being,” published in 2011. The acronym PERMA stands for Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Achievement. These five elements were identified as the essential building blocks of well-being and happiness, based on extensive research in the field of positive psychology.

Addition of the V (for Vitality)

The PERMA model has since evolved to include a sixth component, Vitality. This addition acknowledges the importance of physical health and energy levels in maintaining overall well-being. The expanded PERMA-V model provides a more holistic and integrated approach to cultivating happiness and personal fulfilment.

1. Positive Emotions

PERMA-V Model - 1. Positivity

Research suggests that positive emotions play a crucial part in our wellbeing. More recently, it’s been established that we can cultivate and expand these emotions – meaning we can enhance our outlook, on-going mood and interactions through nurturing these postive emotions.

Positive emotions encompass feelings such as joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love. These emotions serve as the foundation of the PERMA-V model and contribute to an individual’s overall well-being and happiness.

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Broaden-and-build theory: Research demonstrates that positive emotions help to broaden our thinking and enhance our problem-solving abilities. This, in turn, enables us to build valuable resources, such as social connections and coping strategies, which contribute to long-term well-being.
  2. Resilience: Positive emotions can help individuals bounce back from adversity, as they foster a more optimistic outlook and encourage a proactive approach to tackling challenges.
  3. Physical health: Studies have shown that experiencing positive emotions is associated with better physical health, including a stronger immune system and a reduced risk of chronic illness.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Practice gratitude by regularly reflecting on the things you are grateful for.
  2. Engage in activities that bring you joy, such as hobbies, sports, or spending time with loved ones.
  3. Cultivate mindfulness through meditation or other contemplative practices.
  4. Seek out opportunities to experience awe and inspiration, such as visiting a beautiful natural landscape or attending a live performance.
  5. Foster an optimistic mindset by focusing on the positives in your life and reframing challenges as opportunities for growth.

2. Engagement

PERMA-V Model - 2. Engagement

Engagement refers to the state of being fully absorbed in an activity, often referred to as “flow.” This can occur when we are immersed in a challenging task that aligns with our skills and interests, such as playing a musical instrument, solving a complex problem, or creating a piece of art.

Engagement plays an important part in our wellbeing, and

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Increased satisfaction: When we experience flow, we are more likely to feel a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment, which contributes to overall well-being.
  2. Enhanced performance: Engagement in activities that promote flow can lead to improved performance and the development of new skills.
  3. Reduced stress: Engaging in flow-inducing activities can help to reduce stress levels by redirecting our focus away from negative thoughts and emotions.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Identify your strengths and passions, and seek out activities that align with these.
  2. Set challenging yet achievable goals that provide a sense of purpose and direction.
  3. Allocate dedicated time to engage in your chosen activities, free from distractions.
  4. Learn to embrace failure as an opportunity for growth and development.
  5. Continuously seek opportunities to challenge yourself and expand your skillset.

3. Relationships

PERMA-V Model - 3. Relationship


Relationships encompass the connections we have with others, including family, friends, colleagues, and romantic partners. Strong, supportive relationships are a crucial component of the PERMA-V model, as they contribute significantly to our overall well-being and happiness.

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Social support: Strong relationships provide us with social support, which can help buffer against stress and promote resilience in the face of adversity.
  2. Emotional well-being: Positive relationships contribute to our emotional well-being by providing opportunities for shared experiences, emotional expression, and validation.
  3. Physical health: Research has shown that individuals with strong social connections are more likely to enjoy better physical health, including a reduced risk of chronic illness and increased longevity.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Make time for regular social interactions with friends and family.
  2. Cultivate empathy and active listening skills to foster deeper connections with others.
  3. Engage in group activities, such as joining clubs or attending social events, to expand your social network.
  4. Offer support and encouragement to others in times of need.
  5. Be open and authentic in your interactions, allowing others to truly get to know you.

4. Meaning

PERMA-V Model - 4. Meaning


Meaning refers to the sense of purpose and direction in our lives, often derived from our involvement in activities or pursuits that align with our values and passions. This can include our work, volunteering, caregiving, or spiritual practices.

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Enhanced well-being: A sense of meaning and purpose has been consistently linked with higher levels of well-being and life satisfaction.
  2. Resilience: Meaning can provide a sense of stability and anchor during difficult times, helping us to navigate challenges with greater resilience.
  3. Motivation: When our actions are driven by a sense of meaning, we are more likely to feel motivated and energized in the pursuit of our goals.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Reflect on your values and passions, and seek out activities that align with these.
  2. Set meaningful goals that contribute to a greater sense of purpose and direction.
  3. Engage in regular self-reflection to evaluate your progress and maintain clarity on your values and purpose.
  4. Seek out opportunities to make a positive impact on others or the environment.
  5. Connect with like-minded individuals who share your values and passions, to foster a sense of community and belonging.

5. Achievement

PERMA-V Model - 5. Achievement


Achievement encompasses the pursuit and accomplishment of meaningful goals, which contribute to our sense of competence, mastery, and personal growth.

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Self-efficacy: Achieving our goals can enhance our sense of self-efficacy, or the belief in our ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task.
  2. Growth: Pursuing and achieving goals contributes to personal growth and the development of new skills and capabilities.
  3. Well-being: A sense of achievement is associated with increased well-being and life satisfaction.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Set SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound) goals to provide a clear roadmap for success.
  2. Break larger goals into smaller, manageable steps to maintain motivation and momentum.
  3. Regularly review and adjust your goals as needed, to ensure they remain meaningful and relevant.
  4. Celebrate your achievements, both big and small, to reinforce your sense of accomplishment and boost motivation.
  5. Embrace a growth mindset, viewing setbacks as opportunities for learning and development.

6. Vitality

PERMA-V Model - 5. Vitality


Vitality refers to our physical health, energy levels, and overall sense of well-being. This includes factors such as sleep, nutrition, exercise, and stress management.

3 reasons it’s important

  1. Holistic well-being: Physical health is intrinsically linked to our psychological well-being, with each influencing the other.
  2. Performance: Good physical health can enhance our cognitive function, creativity, and overall performance in various aspects of our lives.
  3. Longevity: Maintaining good physical health can contribute to increased longevity and a reduced risk of chronic illness.

5 tips for bringing it into your life

  1. Prioritize regular exercise, aiming for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per week.
  2. Focus on a balanced diet rich in whole foods, including fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains.
  3. Establish a consistent sleep routine, aiming for 7-9 hours of quality sleep per night.
  4. Incorporate stress-reducing activities, such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises, into your daily routine.
  5. Regularly monitor and address any health concerns, in consultation with a healthcare professional.

Using the PERMA-V model

To effectively use the PERMA-V model, you should first assess their current levels of well-being in each of the six components. This can be done through self-reflection, journaling, using of well-being assessment tool or working with your coach. Once a baseline has been established, individuals can develop a personalised action plan to enhance their well-being in each area, incorporating the tips and strategies outlined in this article.


In conclusion, the PERMA-V model offers a comprehensive and practical framework for promoting well-being and happiness, encompassing six key elements: Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, Achievement, and Vitality. By understanding and actively cultivating these elements in our lives, we can enhance our overall well-being, foster personal growth, and ultimately, lead a more fulfilling and flourishing life.

Other Coaching Models

Here’s some more helpful coaching and self-reflection models

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top
Fancy a chat?
Scan the code